HIV seroprevalence and factors affecting clinical outcomes among patients with surgical acute abdomen in selected hospitals in Mwanza, north-western in Tanzania
Background: HIV infection has been reported to be prevalent in patients with surgical acute abdomen. This study aimed to establish HIV seroprevalence among patients with surgical acute abdomen and to identify factors affecting clinical outcomes among these patients at a tertiary care hospital in Tanzania
Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients with surgical acute abdomen admitted to three selected hospitals in Mwanza between February 2016 and July 2016.
Results: Out of the 106 patients (M: F = 1.5:1) included in the study, 15 (14.2%) were HIV positive. Of these, nine were males and 6 were females. Surgical site infection was the most common postoperative compilation and was found to be significantly higher in HIV positive patients with CD 4+ count below 200 cells/μl (p<0.001). The median length of hospital stay (LOS) was 16 days. There was no significant difference in LOS between HIV positive and negative patients (p=0.791). Mortality rate was 13.2% and it was significantly higher in patients with advanced age (> 65 years), pre-existing medical illness, delayed presentation (>48 hours), HIV positivity, high American Society of Anesthetists class, surgical site infections (p< 0.001).
Conclusion: This study has shown that HIV infection is prevalent among patients with surgical acute abdomen in our setting. Factors influencing the clinical outcome of these patients need to be addressed, in order to deliver optimal patient care and improve their treatment outcome.