Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of Ibadan City, Nigeria
Occurrence of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases in cities of developing countries has been on the increase over the decades largely due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. This study examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of water-borne diseases vis-a- vis water quality in parts of Ibadan City in Nigeria. Data on 1,334 cases of various water-borne diseases was collected from eight public hospitals with catchments covering the study area. Three areas with relatively high incidence of water-borne diseases and another three areas with relatively low incidence were selected for water sampling and household survey. Water samples from rains, wells, and borehole were collected for physical and bacteriological analyses. A well structured questionnaire was administered to 350 residents of the selected areas to elicit information on water sourcing, handling and storage. Analysis of hospital records showed significant difference in the occurrence of water-borne diseases among residential areas (P<0.05). Typhoid fever had the highest occurrence (39.3%) followed by bacillary dysentery and cholera. About 45% of water-borne diseases were reported in July to September. The majority (77.1%) of the respondents depended on wells as major source of domestic water. Faecal coliform contamination of water samples ranged between 0.1 x 104 and 1.8 x 104 CFUml-1. Furthermore, 18% of rain water and 23.6% of well water samples were positive to Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae. Potash alum application for domestic water treatment accounted for 68.6% explanation of waterborne diseases morbidity pattern in the study area (P<0.05). Provision of adequate potable water remains the most important tool for preventing water-borne diseases in the study area.
Key words: urban health, water-borne diseases, water quality, Nigeria