Defining malaria burden from morbidity and mortality records, self treatment practices and serological data in Magugu, Babati District, northern Tanzania

  • Charles Mwanziva Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute
  • Alphaxard Manjurano Joint Malaria Programme (JMP)
  • Erasto Mbugi Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam,Tanzania
  • Clement Mweya National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Tukuyu Centre, P. O. Box 538, Tukuyu, Tanzania;South African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance (SACIDS), Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), P. O. Box 3297, Morogoro, Tanzania
  • Humphrey Mkali National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Tabora Medical Centre, P. O. Box 482, Tabora, Tanzania
  • Maggie P. Kivuyo National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Ngongongare Research Station, P. O. Box 514, Usa River, Arumeru, Tanzania
  • Alex Sanga St John University of Tanzania, Dodoma
  • Arnold Ndaro Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute (KCRI)
  • William Chambo National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Amani Centre, P. O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania
  • Abas Mkwizu Magugu Health Centre, Box 679, Babati Manyara Tanzania
  • Jovin Kitau Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;
  • Reginald Kavishe Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Insitute (KCRI), P. O. Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania
  • William Dolmans Radboud University-Nijmegen,Netherlands
  • Jaffu Chilongola Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Insitute (KCRI), P. O. Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania
  • Franklin W. Mosha Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Insitute (KCRI), P. O. Box 2236, Moshi,
Keywords: malaria, morbidity, mortality, diagnosis, treatment, Tanzania

Abstract

Malaria morbidity and mortality data from clinical records provide essential information towards defining disease burden in the area and for planning control strategies, but should be augmented with data on transmission intensity and serological data as measures for exposure to malaria. The objective of this study was to estimate the malaria burden based on serological data and prevalence of malaria, and compare it with existing self-treatment practices in Magugu in Babati District of northern Tanzania. Prospectively, 470 individuals were selected for the study. Both microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) were used for malaria diagnosis. Seroprevalence of antibodies to merozoite surface proteins (MSP-119) and apical membrane antigen (AMA-1) was performed and the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was estimated. To complement this information, retrospective data on treatment history, prescriptions by physicians and use of bed nets were collected. Malaria prevalence in the area was 6.8% (32/470). Of 130 individuals treated with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), 22.3 % (29/130) were slide confirmed while 75.3% (98/130) of them were blood smear negative. Three of the slides confirmed individuals were not treated with ACT. Fever was reported in 38.2% of individuals, of whom 48.8 % (88/180) were given ACT. Forty-two (32.3%) of those who received ACT had no history of fever. About half (51.1%) of those treated with ACT were children <10 years old. Immunoglobulin against MSP-119 was positive in 16.9% (74/437) while against AMA-1 was positive in 29.8 % (130/436). Transmission intensity was estimated at <0.2 infectious bites per person per year. The RDT was highly specific (96.3%) but with low sensitivity (15.6%).  Magugu is a low endemic area. There is substantial over diagnosis, over treatment and self treatment in the community.   The burden of malaria based on medical records is over estimated   as was mostly presumptive. The low sensitivity of RDT reflects the low number of immune individuals as well as the low parasite density.

Author Biographies

Charles Mwanziva, Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute
Research Scientist, PhD candidate
Alphaxard Manjurano, Joint Malaria Programme (JMP)
Molecular biologist, PhD
Erasto Mbugi, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam,Tanzania
molecular biologist, PhD
Clement Mweya, National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Tukuyu Centre, P. O. Box 538, Tukuyu, Tanzania;South African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance (SACIDS), Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), P. O. Box 3297, Morogoro, Tanzania
Entomologist, PhD candidate
Humphrey Mkali, National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Tabora Medical Centre, P. O. Box 482, Tabora, Tanzania
Statistician, MSc
Maggie P. Kivuyo, National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Ngongongare Research Station, P. O. Box 514, Usa River, Arumeru, Tanzania
Entomologist
Arnold Ndaro, Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute (KCRI)

Laboratory Technician, BSC laboratory science student

Abas Mkwizu, Magugu Health Centre, Box 679, Babati Manyara Tanzania

Clinical Officer

Jovin Kitau, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;
Research Scientist, PhD candidate
Reginald Kavishe, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Insitute (KCRI), P. O. Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania
Molecular Biologist, PhD
William Dolmans, Radboud University-Nijmegen,Netherlands

PhD

Jaffu Chilongola, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Insitute (KCRI), P. O. Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania
Deputy Director Training, PhD
Franklin W. Mosha, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) P. O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania;Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Insitute (KCRI), P. O. Box 2236, Moshi,
Director, PhD
Published
2011-04-23
How to Cite
MwanzivaC., ManjuranoA., MbugiE., MweyaC., MkaliH., KivuyoM. P., SangaA., NdaroA., ChamboW., MkwizuA., KitauJ., KavisheR., DolmansW., ChilongolaJ., & MoshaF. W. (2011). Defining malaria burden from morbidity and mortality records, self treatment practices and serological data in Magugu, Babati District, northern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 13(2), 93-96. https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v13i2.62980
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1821-9241
print ISSN: 1821-6404