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Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

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Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass Characteristic of Broiler Turkeys

MC Ugwuene

Abstract


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent. One hundred and eighty (180) turkeys poults were randomly allotted to the six dietary treatments replicated trice, containing 30 turkeys per treatment and 10 turkeys per replicate making it a completely Randomized Design study which lasted 24 weeks. Proximate and chromatographic analyses were carried out on the samples of meat of turkeys slaughtered at the end of the experiment in order to determine the nutrient and fatty acid composition whereas sensory assessors were employed to conduct the palatability tests on the meat samples. Crude fibre content of the meat of turkeys fed diet 1(2.41%) was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of diets 3, 4 and 5 (2.80, 2.86 and 2.85%) whereas the crude fibre of turkeys fed diets 1 and 6 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of diet 1. The ash content of turkeys fed diet 1 (27.8%) was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of diets 2, 3, 4 and 6 (3.07, 3.09, 3.23 and 3.21%). That of diet 5 (3.55%) was however significantly greater than that of diet 1. The lauric acid of turkeys fed diets 5 and 6 (42.18 and 45.40%) were not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other but that of diet 6 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of diets 1 to 4 (7.63, 26.85, 37.10, 40.61%). The lauric acid values of turkeys fed diets 2 to 6 (20-100 replacement) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of diet 1. The myristic acid value of turkeys fed diet 5 (24.67%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than others followed by those of diets 6 and 4 (21.41 and 20.76%). There was no significant differences (P>0.05) among the myristic acid of turkeys fed diets 1, 2 and 3 (6.24, 7.95 and 8.40%). The oleic stearic and linoleic acid values of turkeys fed diet 1 (oleic =26.86% stearic = 21.13% and linoleic = 29.90%) were respectively significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of those fed diets 2 to 6 (oleic, diets 2 -6 = 21.95, 21.16, 14,71, 9.89, 9.60%; strearic, diets 2 – 6 = 15.06, 12.71, 8.75, 8.21,7.92%, linoleic, diets 2 – 6 = 13.25, 8.85, 3.06, 2.58, 2.15%). Similarly the capric of turkeys fed diet 6 (0.67%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than others while that of diets 1 (0.22%) was the least. The caprylic acid values of turkeys fed diets 2-6 (8.56, 7.56, 8.30, 6.33, 7.56%) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of diet 1 (3.58%). There was no significant difference in the caproic acid values of turkeys fed diets 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (3.02, 2.93, 2.83, 3.08 and 3.75%). The colour of meat of turkeys fed diet 1, 3, 4 and 6 (4.40, 4.84, 5.20 and 4.76) were not significantly different (P>0.05) from one another whereas those of diets 2 and 5 (6.04, 5.72%) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of diet 1. The general acceptability of meat of turkeys fed diets 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (5.16, 5.48, 5.72, 5.88 and 5.32) were not significantly different from one another (P>0.05) but that of diet 2 (5.96) was statistically higher than that of diet 1. From the foregoing, PKM can replace maize up to 100 percent without any adverse effect on nutrient content, fatty acids and palatability of the meat.



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