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Comparison of End-Point Energies of Bremsstrahlung Photons from 28- GHz ECR Ion Source in Three Measurement Locations

Mwingereza J. Kumwenda


Bremsstrahlung photons measurement show elevated energy emission beyond critical energy in 28-GHz ECR and its nature is not revealed. Thus, the aim of this study is to unveil the nature of high end-point energies at the three measurement locations. Bremsstrahlung photons from a 28-GHz ECR ion source were measured at Busan center of Korean Basic Science Institute (KBSI). The gamma-ray detection system consists of three round type NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors placed 62 cm radially from the beam axis at the three measurement locations namely injection, centre and extraction sides of an ECR ion source, and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at the view port for monitoring photon intensity along the beam axis. Such design of the experiment was based on the inner structure of the ECR ion source and the shape of the ECR plasma. Bremsstrahlung photons energy spectra were measured at RF power of 1 kW to extract O16 beam with a dominant fraction of O3+ and O4+. Also, bremsstrahlung photons were measured by exchanging the detector positions for studying systematic uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 package was performed to take geometrical acceptance and the energy-dependent detection efficiency into account due to large non-uniformity in the material budget. True bremsstrahlung energy spectra from the 28-GHz ECR ion source were extracted using an inverse matrix unfolding method. The measured high end-point energies at the three measurement locations were 1.68 MeV, 1.72 MeV and 2.04 MeV for the injection, centre and extraction sides, respectively. The high end-point energy values of the measured bremsstrahlung photons beyond the theoretical energy value of 1.33 MeV were found to be correlated with the structure of the ECR ion source and the shape of the ECR plasma. Furthermore, the high end-point energy values resulting from the bremsstrahlung photons measurements in the 28-GHz ECR plasma are due to the higher number of unconfined electrons arriving at the chamber wall easily, and producing higher bremsstrahlung photons. The unconfined electrons are the results of imperfect magnetic confinement that cause electrons to escape from the plasma volume. This study suggests a new design of magnetic confinement that will not allow an electron to escape.

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eISSN: 2619-8789
print ISSN: 1821-536X