Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post‑menopausal women at a Primary Care Clinic in Nigeria
Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival.
Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies.
Study Design: A cross‑sectional comparative study design was used and questionnaires were administered to 400 adult women at a tertiary health centre in Nigeria. The data was analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17; the level of significance set at alpha = 0.05.
Results: There was significant association between pre‑menopausal and post‑menopausal women with positive family history of breast cancer with P = 0.010. Majority of the respondents with a positive family history of breast cancer were menopausal (P = 0.010). There was a statistically significant association between menopausal status and ever consuming alcohol‑based herbal concoctions (P = 0.010) and in those whose partners smoked cigarettes (P = 0.001). Majority of respondents were not currently on any form of contraceptives. Parity, breastfeeding and use of hormonal contraceptives were all statistically significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Almost all the women in our study, 97%, had never had a mammogram. There was a significant association between pre‑menopausal and post‑menopausal women with positive family history of breast cancer (P = 0.010).
Conclusion: With increasing incidence of breast cancer worldwide and late presentation in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality, effective screening for risk factors will go a long way in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Nigeria; risk factors; women