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Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post‑menopausal women at a Primary Care Clinic in Nigeria

Ajayi O. Ikeoluwapo, Ogunbode M. Adetola, Adeniji‑Sofoluwe T. Adenike, Mosuro A. Olushola, Ladipo M.A. Modupe, Oluwasola O. Abideen, Afolabi B. Nathaniel, Obajimi O. Millicent

Abstract


Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival.

Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies.

Study Design: A cross‑sectional comparative study design was used and questionnaires were administered to 400 adult women at a tertiary health centre in Nigeria. The data was analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17; the level of significance set at alpha = 0.05.

Results: There was significant association between pre‑menopausal and post‑menopausal women with positive family history of breast cancer with P = 0.010. Majority of the respondents with a positive family history of breast cancer were menopausal (P = 0.010). There was a statistically significant association between menopausal status and ever consuming alcohol‑based herbal concoctions (P = 0.010) and in those whose partners smoked cigarettes (P = 0.001). Majority of respondents were not currently on any form of contraceptives. Parity, breastfeeding and use of hormonal contraceptives were all statistically significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Almost all the women in our study, 97%, had never had a mammogram. There was a significant association between pre‑menopausal and post‑menopausal women with positive family history of breast cancer (P = 0.010).

Conclusion: With increasing incidence of breast cancer worldwide and late presentation in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality, effective screening for risk factors will go a long way in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast cancer; Nigeria; risk factors; women




http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0189-5117.192232
AJOL African Journals Online