Instrumental vaginal delivery in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto: A ten‑year review

  • J.A. Garba
  • A.T. Burodo
  • A.D. Saidu
  • B Sulaiman
  • A.G. Umar
  • R Ibrahim
  • A.M. Nasir
Keywords: Complications, forceps delivery, rate, vacuum delivery


Background: Instrumental vaginal delivery is one of the key elements of essential obstetric care that mimics spontaneous vaginal delivery in order to expedite delivery with minimal maternal and neonatal morbidity. The objectives of the study were to determine the rate of instrumental deliveries, the common indications, and compare outcome and complications between forceps and vacuum deliveries.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cross‑sectional study on instrumental vaginal deliveries carried out in UDUTH over 10 years from January 2007 to December 2016. The list of cases was obtained, the case files were retrieved and relevant information was obtained. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: The instrumental vaginal delivery rate was 2.06%. Vacuum deliveries accounted for 83.3% (n = 524) but forceps deliveries accounted for 16.7% (n = 105). The most common indication for both was delayed second stage of labor due to malposition. There was no statistical difference in the mean APGAR scores at 1st and 5th min between babies delivered by vacuum and those delivered by forceps. Majority had no complication and there was no statistical association between the type of procedure and maternal or fetal complications observed during the procedure (χ2 = 3.18, P = 0.2).

Conclusion: The rate of instrumental vaginal delivery is much lower than that reported in some centers in Nigeria and globally. Majority of the cases had no complication and there was no significant difference in complications observed between vacuum and forceps deliveries.

Keywords: Complications; forceps delivery; rate; vacuum delivery


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 0189-5117