Review of instrumental vaginal delivery at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex
Background: Instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) is one of the signal functions of the basic emergency obstetric and newborn care. Some recent reviews point towards a sustained fall in the performance of this lifesaving procedure. With increasing caesarean section rates, institutional reviews of the practice of IVD are important to improve and sustain this art which is on the path of extinction.
Objectives: To determine the IVD rate at the OAUTHC over a 5‑year period from January 2013 to December 2017 and to review the maternal and newborn outcomes.
Methods: This was a retrospective review. Case records of parturients who had either forceps or vacuum delivery during the study period were retrieved and relevant information were extracted. Data analysis was done with IBM‑SPSS version 20.
Results: There were 10,286 deliveries and 101 IVDs over the 5‑year period giving an IVD rate of 0.98%, with 0.41% for forceps and 0.57% for vacuum delivery. Seventy‑one case records were available for review. Mean maternal age was 27.21 ± 5.8 years and 31 (43.7%) of the parturients were primigravidae. Thirty‑nine (54.9%) were booked and 66 (93%) of the procedures were performed as emergencies. Senior residents conducted most (94.4%) of the procedures and poor maternal efforts in the second stage of labor was the most common indication (43.8%). All resulted in vaginal delivery with the most common maternal complication being genital tract laceration, most notably first and second‑degree perineal tears. Of the 66 livebirths, neonatal ward admission rate was 45.5%. There was an early neonatal death which followed a traumatic vacuum delivery.
Conclusion and Recommendations: The IVD rate at OAUTHC is low, with higher preference for vacuum delivery. Appropriate case selection is evident, and poor maternal effort in second stage of labor remained the leading indication. The neonatal admission rate is high. Training and retraining of resident doctors is necessary towards increasing the conduct and ensuring better outcome.
Keywords: Forceps delivery; instrumental vaginal delivery; maternal complications; neonatal outcomes; vacuum delivery
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