Abruptio Placenta: A retrospective analysis in a tertiary hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria
Context: Abruptio placenta is an important contributor to perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Although the primary etiology remains unknown, there are many associated risk factors, some of which are preventable or treatable.
Aim: To determine the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and feto‑maternal outcome of abruptio placenta in Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study involving all pregnant women who had abruptio placenta from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality were extracted from patients’ case notes for analysis.
Results: The mean age of the subjects was 33.4 ± 6.3 years. The prevalence of abruptio placenta was 1.03%. Hypertensive disorder was the most important risk factor, seen in 53.1% of the subjects. Birth asphyxia was the major perinatal morbidity and was found in 42.9% of the babies, whereas 46.9% were still births. The caesarean section rate was 63.3%. Forty subjects (81.6%) had blood transfusion, 17 subjects (34.7%) had postpartum hemorrhage, and 40.8% had postpartum anemia. There were two maternal deaths giving a case‑specific fatality rate of 4.1%.
Conclusion: Abruptio placenta is an important pregnancy complication in Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Nigeria. Good antenatal care services will enable caregivers to identify women at risk who may benefit from targeted management aimed at reducing the adverse outcomes associated with the condition.
Keywords: Abruptio placenta; feto‑maternal outcome; prevalence; risk factors