Pattern and relative frequencies of gynecological malignancies at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja
Background: Gynecological cancers have been shown to contribute overwhelmingly to gynecological mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. An in‑depth study of the patterns of the distribution will help to elucidate the estimates of the disease burden in University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH).
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and relative frequencies of gynecological cancers at UATH.
Materials and Methods: Case notes of patients managed for gynecological cancers at UATH over a 5‑year period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018 were retrieved. Relevant data on age, parity, and type of cancer, clinical, surgical, and histopathological diagnosis were collated using a proforma and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
Result: A total of 167 gynecological cancer cases of 3030 gynecological admissions were seen during the period putting its to prevalence at 5.5%. The most common gynecologic cancer was cervical cancer that constituted (88) 52.7% of the cases; ovarian 47 (28.1%), endometrial 17 (10.2%), choriocarcinoma 11 (6.6%), and vulva cancers 4 (2.40%) are not so common. The mean age and parity at presentation are cervical cancer (55.50 ± 12.71 and 4.41 ± 2.05), ovary (42.34 ± 14.91 and 2.94 ± 2.11), uterus (50.54 ± 15.18 and 3.39 ± 2.25), and vulva (63.50 ± 15.09 and 5.50 ± 2.38), respectively. The overall mean age for all cancers is 51.16 ± 14.95 and overall parity is 3.85 ± 2.21. Majority presented in advanced stage of the
disease; the most common cause of death is renal failure.
Conclusion: The burden of gynecological cancers is high, although cervical cancer is on downward trend in our environment and most cancer cases came as late presentations.
Key words: Abuja; cervical cancer; choriocarcinoma; gynecological cancers; ovarian cancer.
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