Genetic factors in the clinical management of male infertility
Background: Infertility is a common gynecological problem. Most literatures are about female infertility with emphasis on infection sequelae and other factors such as anovulation. More recent studies reveal significant contribution from the males presenting as severe oligospermia and azoospermia.
Objective: This literature reviews the genetic factors that contribute to male infertility, in the form of genic problem in the genes on the Y chromosome (primary) or sequelae of other genetic problems (secondary). They are discussed as pre- and post–spermatogenic. The common ones such as Y-chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) locus, Klinifelter syndrome 47XXY and Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations leading to congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD) are discussed. Other less common causes include Prader Willi syndrome, Kennedy disease, Katergener syndrome and Polycystic kidney disease.
Source: Medline search of local and non local articles, as well as standard text on human genetics were used for the review
Conclusion: Genetic factors play an important role male infertility and knowledge about them forms the basis for the rational management of males with severe oligospermia and azoospermia especially in developing countries.
Keywords: Genetic, Male infertility, Clinical, Assisted Reproductive techniques, Semen