Cytotoxic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Convolvulus arvensis L (Convolvulaceae) on Lymphoblastic Leukemia Jurkat Cells
Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of aerial parts of Convolvulus arvensis against lymphoblastic leukemia, Jurkat cells.
Methods: The aerial parts of C. arvensis were collected, identified, powdered and soaked in ethanol. The extract was filtered and evaporated, and the residue assessed for cytotoxic activity in Jurkat cell line. The cells were exposed to different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/mL) of the extract to determine cell viability, cell proliferation, apoptosis using Trypan blue exclusion assay, 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, respectively.
Results: Trypan blue exclusion assay and MTS assay results indicate that the ethanol extract decreased the number of living cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. The results of FACS analysis showed that the lowest concentration of the extract (10 μg/mL) was most effective for the induction of apoptosis as it induced maximum apoptosis (85.34 %) and the highest concentration (100 μg/mL) was less effective as it induced less apoptosis (53.70 %) in Jurkat cells (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The ethanol extract of C. arvensis has significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell line. Furthermore, apoptotic effect was more prominent at lower doses and necrosis at higher doses of the extract.
Keywords: Convolvulus arvensis; (MTS) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4- sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay; Trypan blue exclusion assay, Apoptosis, Necrosis
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