Induction of Apoptosis by Methyl Alcohol Extract of Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) J Agardh in U937 Human Leukemia Cells
Purpose: To investigate the anti-cancer effect of methyl alcohol extract of Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) J. Agardh (MEEL) in U937 human leukemia cells.
Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. Protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 405 nm.
Results: MEEL inhibited U937 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis through up-regulation of death receptor-related gene expression, caspase-8 activation and truncation of Bid, which was associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Subsequently, the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and IAP family proteins decreased but those of pro-apoptotic proteins including Bax and Bad increased in MEEL-treated U937 cells. MEEL treatment also resulted in activation of caspase-9 and -3 as well as concomitant cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and phopholipase Cγ-1. However, pretreatment of U937 cells with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor, abrogated chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation and prevented cell death induced by the MEEL.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that MEEL induced apoptosis in U937 cells through a signaling cascade of death-receptor-mediated extrinsic as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathways, thus raising the possibility that MEEL may be of value in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for treating leukemia.
Keywords: Enteromorpha linza, Apoptosis, Caspase, U937 cells
Submission of a manuscript to this journal is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
All authors named in each manuscript would be required to sign a form (to be supplied by the Editor) so that they may retain their copyright in the article but to assign to us (the Publishers) and its licensees in perpetuity, in all forms, formats and media (whether known or created in the future) to (i) publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the contribution, (ii) translate the contribution into other languages, create adaptations, reprints, include within collections and create summaries, extracts and/or abstracts of the contribution, (iii) create any other derivative works(s) based on the contribution, (iv) to exploit all subsidiary rights in the contribution, (v) the inclusion of electronic links from the contribution to third party material where-ever it may be located, and (vi) license any thrid party to do any or all of the above.