Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Activity of the Berries of Solanum nigrum Linn
Purpose: To investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, acute oral toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (S. nigrum)
Methods: Phytochemicals from the ethanol berry extract were screened by standard methods. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 425 guidelines while anticonvulsant activity was evaluated against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizure in mice. The effect of the extract at dose levels of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in an experimental mice model, using phenobarbital as positive control (100 mg/kg p.o).
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed that the berries of S. nigrum contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenols and steroids. The oral median lethal dose of the extract was 3129 mg/kg body weight. The extract significantly delayed the latency of convulsion (p ˂ 0.05) in PTZ-induced seizure mice in at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o. The extract also reduced the frequency of convulsion and provided up to 100 % protection (300 mg/kg p.o) against death.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this study suggest that the ethanol berry extract of Solanum nigrum is safe and possesses anticonvulsant activity in PTZ-induced seizure in mice.
Keywords: Solanum nigrum, Phytochemical, Anticonvulsant, Pentylenetetrazole, Lethal dose, Acutetoxicity
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