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Purpose: Sage, Salvia officinalis L (Lamiaceae), is widely cultivated medicinal plant for its economic importance and large content of bioactive components; therefore, in the present study, the active components (volatile compounds) and the anti-inflammatory effect of S. officinalis have been investigated.
Methods: Salvia officinalis samples were collected from northern and southern Albania, respectively. The crushed leaves were subjected to hydro-distillation, and the essential oils analyzed by gas chromatography GC/FID (for quantification of volatiles) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) for identification.
Results: α-Thujone (30.7 %), camphor (26.6 %) and 1, 8-cineole (14.7 %) were the major components of the oil from northern Albania, while camphor (43.8 %), α-thujone (15.9 %), camphene (8.5 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.4 %) were the predominant compounds in the sample from southern Albania. The results of the anti-inflammatory tests on these essential oils using murine macrophages indicate that both oils significantly (p < 0.05) reduced nitric oxide (NO), and nuclear kappa B (NF-κB) production in RAW 264.7 cells.
Conclusion: The results indicate that NO and NF-κB production in RAW 264.7 cells are greatly decreased by the essential oil of Albanian sage. Thus, the biological properties of sage oil can be attributed to the components of the oil.
Keywords: Salvia officinalis, Sage oil, Camphor, Camphene, Lamiaceae, Cineole, Nuclear kappa B, Nitric oxide, α-Thujone, Volatile compound