Main Article Content
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of extraction method and solvent type on extractable polyphenols and flavonoids in Doum Hyphaene Thebaica L. Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit, as well as to examine the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the fruit extracts.
Methods: The extraction procedures were performed separately in an ultrasonic bath or shaking water bath for 30 min (70 °C for ethanol and 60 °C for methanol) at agitation speed of 50 Hz and 70 rpm, respectively. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was investigated using â-carotene bleaching, 2,2- diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power ability assays. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi was assessed using agar disc diffusion assay.
Results: Total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), as well as antioxidant capacity were maximized using methanol as the extraction solvent, particularly with the ultrasonic method. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the methanol/ultrasonic (MU), methanol/water bath (MW), ethanol/ultrasonic (EU), and ethanol/water bath (EW) extracts in the DPPH assay were 107.6 126.7, 172.7, and 196.3 ìg/mL, respectively. The extracts showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi, while MU extract inhibited the growth of all pathogenic bacteria used in this study.
Conclusion: The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Doum fruit extracts are significantly affected by the type of extracting solvent and equipment used. The findings further demonstrate that MU extract had stronger antioxidant and antibacterial activity than the other extracts.
Keywords: Doum fruit, Hyphaene thebaica, Ultrasonic extraction, Antioxidant, Phenolic, Flavonoid, Antibacterial