Evaluation of Antihypertensive Effect of Aqueous Methanol Extract of Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br in Sprauge Dawley Rats
Purpose: To evaluate the phytochemical profile and antihypertensive effect of Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br (AMECT).
Methods: The antihypertensive effect of the aqueous methanol extract of (AMECT) was evaluated in both normotensive and hypertensive rats. In normotensive rats, various doses (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) were administered at 0, 1, 3 and 6 hr intervals. Anti-hypertensive activity of the crude extract was investigated in three experimental hypertensive models, viz, egg-fed diet, glucose-induced and cadmium-induced hypertensive rats. Cardiovascular parameters, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by tail cuff method using non-invasive blood pressure apparatus (NIBP) attached. AMECT was also investigated for its phytochemical profile.
Results: The results indicate that AMECT produced a dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05) decrease in SBP, DBP, MBP, and HR (p < 0.01) of normotensive rats, when compared to control groups, at all test doses. The 500 mg/kg dose produced a highly significant effect (mm Hg, p < 0.001) in SBP (85.9 ± 7.2), DBP (71.86 ± 12.1), MBP (75.1 ± 11.7) and HR (238.08 ± 8.3 beats/min), in comparison to 100 and 300 mg/kg doses; therefore, 500 mg/kg was selected for antihypertensive test in egg-fed, glucose-induced and cadmium-treated hypertensive rats. Significant (p < 0.05) antihypertensive and negative chronotropic effects were observed in hypertensive models compared to their respective normal controls. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that Caralluma tuberculata possesses significant anti-hypentensive activity in rats.
Keywords: Phytochemical profile, Antihypertensive, Cardiovascular, Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br, Blood pressure