Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Purpose: To evaluate the anticancer activity of linalool against human prostate cancer (DU145) cells.
Methods: The anticancer activity of linalool against DU145 cancer cells was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and Annexin V-FITC, was applied to study apoptosis and cell cycle phase distribution. Inverted light microscopy was used to study the effect of linalool on cell morphology and apoptotic body formation in DU145 cells while gel electrophoresis was employed to evaluate the effect of linalool on DNA fragmentation.
Results: Linalool induced a dose-dependent as well as time-dependent growth inhibitory effect on DU145 prostate cancer cells. It induced sub-G1 phase growth arrest which led to increase in sub-G0/G1 cell population after treatment with increasing doses of linalool. DNA ladder appeared to be more evident with increasing linalool concentration. However, no DNA fragments were observed in the control groups. It was observed that 4.36, 11.54, 21.88 and 15.54 % of the cells underwent early apoptosis after treatment with 0 (no linalool treatment), 20, 40, and 80 μM of linalool, respectively. Compared to control cells, linalool treatment resulted in the appearance of cell shrinkage along with membrane blebbing which are characteristic features of cell apoptosis.
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that linalool can be developed as a plant-based chemotherapeutic agent against prostate cancer
Keywords: Prostate cancer, Linalool, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle, Apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, Sub- G1 phase growth
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