Larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus, Foeniculum vulgare and Tagetes minuta against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes
Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus, Foenuculum vulgare and Tagetes minuta leaf extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.
Methods: The leaves of the plants were extracted with distilled water, ethanol (95 %), and hexane and the extracts screened for their phytochemical profile. While larvicidal and pupicidal activities were assayed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 - 10 mg/mL, insecticidal property was tested at varying amounts (0.25 - 2 g) of the plant sample. The respective larval mortality was thereafter evaluated using Probit analysis.
Results: Saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and steroids were detected in the plant extracts. The ethanol extracts of F. vulgare, T. minuta and C. bipinnatus exhibited larvicidal activity half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.10, 1.17 and 1.18 mg/mL, followed by hexane extracts with LC50 value of 1.03, 1.01 and 1.27 mg/mL, respectively, against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus mosquito. Hexane extracts displayed pupicidal activity with LC50 of 1.07, 1.12 and 1.16 mg/mL against F. vulgare, T. minuta and C. bipinnatus, respectively, while the ethanol extracts of T. minuta, C. bipinnatus and F. vulgare displayed pupicidal activity at LC50 of 1.11, 1.14 and 1.31 mg/mL respectively, against pupa of C. quinquefasciatus mosquito. The aqueous extracts had no (p > 0.05) lethal effects on both larvae and pupa of C. quinquefasciatus at all evaluated concentrations. F. vulgare had the highest (p < 0.05) half-maximal knock-down effect (KD50 = 7.52 min-1), followed by T. minuta (KD50 = 8.64 min-1) on adult C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes after 6 h of exposure. F. vulgare and T. minuta killed all evaluated mosquito adults within 12 h with LD99 = 0.25 g/air, while the leaves of C. bipinnatus had no (p > 0.05) knock-down or lethal effects on the adult mosquito.
Conclusion: C. bipinnatus, F. vulgare and T. minuta possess larvicidal and pupicidal properties against C. quinquefasciatus, whereas only F. vulgare and T. minuta displayed insecticidal properties. Consequent upon these findings, all the plants can be considered naturally potent larvicidal and pupicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus.
Keywords: Cosmos bipinnatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Botanical insecticides, Knock-down effect, Larvicidal, Pupicidal, Insecticidal, Foeniculum vulgare, Tagetes minuta