Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in a health facility in Karachi, Pakistan
Purpose: To study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in known diabetic patients attending the diabetes outpatient department (OPD) of Sind Government Hospital (SGH), New Karachi Township (NKT), Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at the diabetic OPD of SGH, NKT over the period of 17 months from March 2013 to August 2014. The selected patients were interviewed based on a questionnaire; laboratory investigations were performed and examination of the eye was conducted by a specialist ophthalmologist. One hundred and fifty four (154) subjects out of 305 patients contacted fully completed the study. Stratification of the data on gender basis was done, after which one-way ANOVA, χ2 test of correlation, binary logistic regression and relative risk analyses were carried out using SPSS-20.
Results: It was found that 66 % men of normal weight (χ2 = 4.667, p < 0.05) and 60.7 % overweight women (χ2 = 5.143, p < 0.05) were more likely to present with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Prevalence of DR in this target population was 42.86 % (N = 66). Background DR (56 %) and maculopathy (23 %) were more prevalent than advanced conditions of the disease. There was no gender-based preponderance for the presentation of DR (χ2 = 0.663; p > 0.05), nor was this seen in different ethnic groups.
Conclusion: DR is prevalent in the target population and, therefore, emphasis should be on the education of the local population of New Karachi Township on how to attain euglycemic state with regular medication, diet and exercise to avoid development and progress of DR.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy, Medication, Euglycemia, Microvascular complications