Development of hydroxyapatite-based nanomaterials to enhance biological response of osteoblast cells for clinical application
Purpose: To develop a novel chitosan/gelatin-hydroxyapatite (CGHaP) microspheres for evaluating the biological response of pre-osteoblast cells.
Methods: The microsphere was prepared by water-in-oil emulsion method. Cell proliferation was studied using AlamarBlue colorimetric assay and DAPI staining while alkaline phosphatase assay was carried out by colorimetric assay method. Chitosan microspheres as well as chitosan-hydroxyapatite microspheres was prepared and tested for biological response from MC3T3-E1 cell line.
Results: The results showed that CGHaP promotes MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and spread on the surface of microspheres. The cells were clustered with more actin filaments and well-linked with neighbouring cells or adjacent cells when cultured in CGHaP microspheres whereas fewer cells were spread on chitosan (CH) microspheres. CGHaP microspheres significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cell attachment, proliferation and extracellular matrix mineralization. CGHaP microspheres presented significantly (p < 0.02) higher calcium deposition (0.5 ng) than CH microspheres (0.28 ng). Specifically, CGHaP microspheres exhibited high ALP activity (8 units; 2-fold) compared to CH with 3 units, after 7 days of incubation. The results suggest that CGHaP possesses a great ability to facilitate bone ingrowth formation and possibility of good osteointegration in vivo.
Conclusion: The nanomaterial enhances the proliferation of pre-osteoblast cells in tissue engineering microspheres. The outcome of this study may have a major impact on the development of novel nanomaterials for bone tissue engineering.
Keywords: Chitosan/gelatin-hydroxyapatite, Osteoblast, Osteoinduction, Bone tissue engineering, Nanomaterials, Microspheres, Calcium nodule formation