Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of root bark of Acacia jacquemontii Benth (Fabaceae) in experimental animals
Purpose: To investigate the ethnomedicinal claims regarding the use of Acacia jacquemontii Benth. (Fabaceae) in fever, pain and inflammation.
Methods: The methanol root bark extract (AJRBM) of the plant was used in the studies. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out according to established methods. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageennan-induced rat paw edema and Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia models, respectively. The extract was administered at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug in all models. Normal saline (10 mL/kg p.o.) was used as negative control.
Results: Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of cardioactive glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the methanol extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) analgesic effect with 58.98 % reduction in writhing response at a dose of 100 mg/kg, compared with untreated control group. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced edema at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg to 36.84 and 47.36 %, respectively, after 1h of extract administration. The extract exhibited predominantly dose-dependent antipyretic effect in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model. Maximum reduction in body temperature to 37.07 and 38.29 ºC at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, was observed, compared with untreated group (38.90 ºC) after 1 h, but this was not significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The plant extract exerts inhibitory effect on peripheral pain stimuli, edema and dosedependent anti-pyrexia, and thus justifies the ethnomedicinal use of Acacia jacquemontii Benth. in the management of pain, fever and inflammation.
Keywords: Acacia jacquemontii, Antipyretic, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory