Production of lignans in callus culture of Podophyllum hexandrum
Purpose: Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, a source of highly valued podophyllotoxin has been subjected to heavy collection from the wild. The ever-increasing demand of podophyllum is mainly due to two semi synthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin that is etoposide and teniposide, which are used in the treatment of various types of cancer. The anti cancer lignan derivative podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum hexandrum is biosynthesized at very low quantities in intact plant, so the biotechnological production of podophyllotoxin has been considered essential. Method: The aseptically germinated embryos of Podophyllum hexandrum were developed on solid nutrient agar slab. For the growth of callus culture, Murashigae and Skoog media (MS media)) with various concentrations of BAP, NAA and GA3 adjusted to pH 5.8 was used. Podophyllotoxin content in the alcoholic extract of calli and plant root was analysed by HPLC and HPTLC and was also compared with cultivated Podophllum hexandrum root extracts. Result: A fully defined MS medium supplemented with Naphthalene acetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) were effective for both initiation and sustained growth of callus tissue. The relative proportion of callus was markedly influenced by presence of plant growth regulators. The amount of Podophyllotoxin obtained from callus was 0.78 and 0.79 percent as characterized by HPLC and HPTLC respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed that callus culture may be a fruitful tool for the production of podophyllotoxin resin, an anticancer entity.
Keywords: Podophyllum hexandrum, Tissue culture, Podophyllotoxin, HPTLC, HPLC
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 6 (4) 2007: pp. 803-808
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