Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves of Mitracarpus scaber Zucc (Rubiaceae)
Purpose: The methanolic extract and isolated constituents of Mitracarpus scaber Zucc have been reported to exhibit hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antimycotic activities. Establishment of Pharmacognostic profile of the leaves will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.
Method: Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves were carried out to determine the macromorphological, micromorphological, chemomicroscopic, numerical and phytochemical profiles.
Results: Macro - and microscopical studies indicated presence of simple leaf whorled arrangement, an entire margin with lanceolate shape, acute apex and base, parallel venation, thin and wavy anticlinal walls with numerous calcium oxalate crystals. Stomata arrangement was anomocytic with numerous covering trichomes on both surfaces. Chemomicroscopic characters present include lignin, starch, cellulose, mucilage and calcium oxalate crystals while phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and saponins. The investigations also included numerical and quantitative leaf microscopy.
Conclusion: These findings should be suitable for inclusion in the proposed Pharmacopoeia of Nigerian Medicinal plants.
Keywords: Mitracarpus scaber, Pharmacognostic evaluation, Pharmacopoeia.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 6 (4) 2007: pp. 849-853