Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the essential oil of Bidens frondosa L (Asteraceae) against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila)
Purpose: To investigate contact and fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of Bidens frondosa and its isolated constituents against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila).
Methods: The essential oil of B. frondosa was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with HP-5MS column. The active constituents were purified from the oil by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Contact (impregnated filter paper method) and fumigant toxicity (sealed space) of the oil and its isolates were determined.
Results: Thirty-two compounds, representing 98.88 % of the total oil, were determined and the major constituents of the essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (20.50 %), borneol (17.66 %), 4-terpineol (17.26 %), and β-cedrene (6.94 %). The essential oil displayed fumigant toxicity against booklice, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 507.35 μg/L while the isolated constituents, borneol and 4-terpineol, had LC50 values of 2.20 mg/L and 335.24 μg/L against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 210.73 μg/cm2. Borneol, caryophyllene oxide, β-cedrene, and 4-terpineol showed acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 of 98.04, 84.62, 458.79 and 211.35 μg/cm2, respectively.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the essential oil and its isolates possess potential for cultivation into natural insecticides or fumigants, for control of insects in stored grains.
Keywords: Bidens frondosa, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Contact toxicity, Essential oil, Boolice, Stored grains, Natural insecticides, Fumigants
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