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<i>In-vitro</i> anti-inflammatory activities of 3-methoxy quercetin isolated from Nigerian mistletoe parasitic on <i>Garcinia kola</i> Heckel, Clusiaceae

Edwin O. Omeje
Sylvester C. Nworu
Patience O. Osadebe
Lawrence Onugwu
Rakesh Maurya
Sunday N. Okafor
Peter Proksch


Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the most potent and abundant metabolite, 3-methoxy quercetin (3-MQ), from extract fractions of mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus Linn (Loranthaceae) parasitic on Kola acuminata Schott & Endl, (Malvaceae), also known as Garcinia kola Heckel, (Clusiaceae).

Methods: Compounds isolated through a combination of chromatographic techniques were screened for in vitro antioxidant potential using the diphenyl picrazyl hydrazine (DPPH) radical-based model. Cell viability at 1–1000 μM 3-MQ in 24 h was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (n = 5) five (5) replicates.

Results: Ten (10) known compounds including 3-MQ (1) were isolated and characterized. 3-MQ exhibited highly significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity with 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 15.0 μM; concentrations ≤ 100 μM did not exert cytotoxic effect. 3-MQ, at 25 and 125 μM concentrations, significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the production of TNF-α by 82 and 100 %, respectively, compared to controls.

Conclusion: The results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of 3-MQ and suggests its use as a potential alternative therapy for inflammation and related diseases.

Keywords: Loranthus micranthus, Kola acuminata, Garcinia kola, Anti-inflammatory, Cytotoxicity, Chemiluminescence, Antioxidant, TNF-α