Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin isolated from peels of immature Shiranuhi fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on LPSinduced RAW264.7 cells
Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of the immature fruit of a citrus, Shiranuhi, and to identify the active ingredient.
Methods: The immature Shiranuhi peel was extracted with 80 % ethanol, and the extract was fractionated with solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to afford the corresponding fractions and water residue. Among them, the EtOAc-soluble portion was subjected to medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) over a reversed-phase SiO2 column to give compound 1. The isolated compound was identified based on the proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The release of nitric oxide, prostaglandin (PG)E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 secreted by mouse macrophages was measured using RAW264.7 cell culture supernatant.
Results: Shiranuhi (Korean name, Hallabong) is an important citrus species cultivated in Jeju Island, Korea. A polymethoxyflavonoid (PMF), tetramethyl-O-scutellarin (1), was isolated from the peels of immature Shiranuhi fruit. Upon the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects, the flavonoid 1 decreased the nitric oxide production in macrophage cells with high efficiency, viz, 50 % inhibition concentration, IC50 of 57.4 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that PMF 1 effectively inhibited the generation of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokine in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusion: Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin (1) has been successfully isolated from Shiranuhi species for the first time. Thus, Shiranuhi fruit peel extract containing PMF 1 can potentially be applied as an antiinflammatory ingredient in food or cosmetic industries.
Keywords: Shiranuhi fruit, Nitric oxide, Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin, Anti-inflammatory
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