In vitro cytotoxicity of biosynthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human prostate cancer cell lines
Purpose: To establish a green method for production of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using Cinnamomum tamala (C. tamala) leaf extract, and examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of the product in a human prostate cancer (D145) cell line. Methods: TiO2 NPs were synthesized by mixing 20 mL of C. tamala leaf extract with 0.1 M titanium dioxide (Ti(OH)2) (80 mL) in aqueous solution with stirring for 2 h at room temperature. The TiO2 NPs were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicity against D145 cells was determined using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: TEM and DLS analyses showed that the NPs were irregularly shaped, with an average particle size of 23 nm. The FT-IR spectrum of C. tamala leaf extract showed that the biomolecules were potentially involved in reduction processes. The negative zeta potential of -14 mV indicated that the NPs were stable and discrete while their crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that the TiO2 NPs exhibit a dose-dependent toxic effect on D145 cells. Conclusion: A facile and less expensive approach for the production of TiO2 NPs using C. tamala leaf extract has been developed. The TiO2 NPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards D145 cells.
Keywords: Anticancer activity, Cinnamomum tamala, Green synthesis, Prostate cancer, TiO2 nanoparticles