Subchronic toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Uvaria chamae root in rats
Purpose: To assess the safety of ethanol extract of Uvaria chamae root consumption for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine.
Methods: Uvaria chamae was extracted with ethanol, and administered orally to rats at doses ranging from 200 to 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days while distilled water was administered to the control group, the survived animals (43 %), were then euthanized, and blood collected for biochemical and haematological markers. Histopathological examination of the pancreas, liver and kidney sections were also done.
Results: There was a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in serum AST and a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in LDH at 500 mg and 200 mg respectively. Serum BUN was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, while chloride and potassium ions were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated at 200 and 500 mg respectively. However, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC) at 200 mg, and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in platelets at 500 mg/kg of extract. Examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of pancreas showed well-formed islets; mild portal vascular congestion in liver sections; and periportal and interstitial infiltrates of lymphocytes in the liver and kidney sections of the surviving animals respectively.
Conclusion: The consumption of extract at low doses may not be harmful.
Keywords: Uvaria chamae, Safety, Kidney, Liver, Pancreas, Toxicity