Analysis of Coscinium fenestratum Colebr stem extract and effect of the extract on mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and force of contraction in rats
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Coscinium fenestratum (CF) crude extract on hypertension in animal models.
Methods: Dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol (BuOH) extracts were obtained by fractionation from the crude methanol extract. The dried extracts were then administered to Sprague- Dawley (250 – 300 mg) rats (n = 20) and frogs (n = 20) of either sex. CF effect on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR) and force of contraction (FOC) were assessed with the aid of Biopac Lab Pro Software. Atenolol (5 ug/ml) and acetylcholine (5 ug/ml) were used as controls. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and phytochemical studies were carried out on the extract.
Results: The methanol extract (M - E) reduced MABP by 45.60 %, HR by 48.50 %, FOC .by 58.40 %; Fraction - E of the methanol extract reduced MABP by 60.60 %, HR by 58.60 %, FOC by 65.80 %; compared to atenolol which lowered MABP by 52.80 %, HR by 50.60 %, and FOC by 58.80 %; acetylcholine which reduced MABP by 30.50 % HR by 33.60 %, and FOC by 10.50 % in the presence and absence of norepinephrine. Preliminary phytochemical analysis by HPLC indicate the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycoside, alkaloids, columbamine, berberine and naringin.
Conclusion: The results show that Coscinium fenestratum extract lowers MABP, HR and FOC in rats. These effects may be due to the bioactive components present in the extract.
Keywords: Coscinium fenestratum, Hypertension, Norepinephrine, Acetylcholine, Atenolol