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Purpose: To evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of ethanol extract of the pulp of Canarium ovatum (COPE).
Methods: The immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the pulp of C. ovatum was investigated in vivo using Balb/C mice. Extract doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg were orally administered to study its effect on delayed type hypersensitivity and humoral antibody response using sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Acute oral toxicity profile and phytochemical analysis were also determined.
Results: Orally -administered COPE did not exhibit any mortality or signs of toxicity at doses 300 - 2000 mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of biologically-active compounds such as sterols, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Treatment with COPE for 7 days stimulated the early phase of DTH response through significant increase in foot pad thickness (111.87 ± 9.97 % at 300 mg/kg, and 91.27 ± 7.81 % at 600 mg/kg), when compared to distilled water and cyclophosphamide (CP) groups. Similarly, COPE significantly enhanced antibody titer, with highest titer at the dose of 300 mg/kg. Histological observations of the spleen showed follicles with active germinal centers and proliferating lymphocytes, which are consistent with the immunostimulatory effects of COPE.
Conclusion: These results show that COPE has stimulatory effects on cellular and humoral responses in mice, indicating its potential as an immunostimulatory agent.
Keywords: Immunomodulation, Canarium ovatum, Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, Antibody titer, Pili pulp