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Arecoline induces dual modulation of blood pressure in rat, including an initial downregulation and a subsequent upregulation

Jiashan Wu
Lijuan Chen
Meiping Deng
Xiaowen Ye
Xiaoxia Jiang
Jiangliu Fu
Peiling Zhou
Changzheng Zhang


Purpose: To determine the role of arecoline in cardiovascular modulation in rats.
Methods: After rats were anaesthetized with intraperitoneal urethane (1.4 g/kg body weight), saline or arecoline (at doses of 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered, and blood pressure (BP) was continuously recorded using a physiological apparatus. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), maximum changes in MAP and reaction time due to arecoline stimulations were calculated and analyzed.
Results: Arecoline induced biphasic modulation in BP, including an initial downregulation followed by a subsequent upregulation. The MAP and maximum change in MAP exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in the downregulation phase (p < 0.001 within each group), but not in the upregulation phase (p > 0.05 within each group), while BP reaction time showed a dose-dependent prolongation in both downregulation and upregulation phases (ps < 0.01 within each group). Remarkably, arecoline-induced BP downregulation more rapidly and drastically than upregulation in each arecoline group.
Conclusion: These results indicate that arecoline exerts a complex effect in cardiovascular modulation that should be considered as side effects in the clinical use of arecoline and/or with the habitual chewing of areca nuts.

Keywords: Arecoline, Blood pressure, Downregulation, Upregulation

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1596-9827
print ISSN: 1596-5996