Evaluation of the cytotoxic and antiviral effects of ethanol extract of three Opuntia species of Peste des Petits ruminant virus
Purpose: To assess in vitro the virocidal effects of different species of cactus plant on the lethal action of Peste des petits virus (PPRV).
Method: Ethanol extracts of different cactus plants were obtained. A serial twofold dilution of the extracts was prepared. Cytotoxic and antiviral activities were examined through MTT assay at various concentrations. Vero cell lines were grown in 96 well plates up to an 80 % confluent monolayer. The plates were divided into two groups, one for antiviral and the other for cytotoxicity activity. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of the ethanol extracts to assess the cytotoxicity, whereas to assess the antiviral activity, PPRV was re-incubated with the extracts and then exposed to cells. MMT dye was added and the results were evaluated as cell survival (%).
Results: At higher concentrations, i.e., 500 - 1000 μg/mL, ethanol extracts from all the Opuntia species displayed cytotoxic effects. The ethanol extract of OM exhibited the greatest antiviral potential of all the extracts, while the extract of Opuntia stricta (OS) was the least effective against PPRV in the cultured cells. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the concentration of Opuntia manocantha (OM), Opuntia delinii OD and Opuntia stricta (OS) with reference to antiviral activity. OM showed antiviral activity against PPRV from 3.25 to 125 μg/mL, OD antiviral activity from 31.25 to 62.5 ug/ml whereas OS showed antiviral activity at 2.5 μg/mL
Conclusion: The ethanol extract of Opuntia species reduces the infection of PPRV in Caprine.
Keywords: Cactus, Opuntia spp., Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Vero cell line
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