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Purpose: To determine the effect of bacoside-A on Parkinson's disease (PD) in a rat model, and elucidate its mechanism of action.
Methods: A rat model of PD was established by administration of 5 µL of 6-hydroxydopamine in ascorbic acid (0.1 %). Measurement of serum levels of inflammatory factors was carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Western blotting was used to assay Bax, cytochrome c and Bcl-2 in rat hippocampus.
Results: Bacoside-A treatment significantly reduced PD-induced high turning values in rats (p < 0.05). Treatment with bacoside-A reversed PD-mediated suppression of serum activities of CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In bacoside-A-treated PD rats, dose-dependent suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were observed (p < 0.05). Bacoside-A-treated PD rats significantly (p < 0.018) reduced interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels. Treatment of PD rats with bacoside-A effectively reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, NF-κB p65, (COX)-2 and p53 protein, and also reversed up-regulations of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3 and caspase-9.
Conclusion: Bacoside-A exhibits a protective effect against Parkinson disease-induced oxidative damage and neuronal degeneration in rats through downregulation of iNOS, AChE, inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic proteins. Therefore, bacoside-A has potentials for use in the management of Parkinson disease.
Keywords: Parkinson disease, Neuroprotective, Pro-apoptotic, Cytokines, Neurotoxicity