Alendronate blocks human cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration
Purpose: To explore the effect of alendronate on cell death and migration of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).
Methods: Migration and cell death of CCA cells were determined using sulforhodamine B (SRB), colony formation, wound healing, and gelatin zymography assays. The mechanism of action of alendronate was studied with reverse-transcriptase polymerase reaction (RT-PCR) for gene expression and by Western blotting analysis for protein expression.
Results: Alendronate stimulated KKU-100 cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner, with low IC50 value, and significantly inhbited colony formation at doses of 5 - 100 µM. Moreover, alendronate at doses of 250 - 1000 µM significantly stimulated CCA apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and enhanced caspase 3 activity at a dose of 1000 µM. Moreover, at a dose of 250 µM, it significantly inhibited cell growth through induction of caspase 3 and p53, and reduction of protein expression levels of NF-ĸB. Furthemore, alendronate altered mevalonate (MVA) pathway via downregulation of Rac1 protein expression. In contrast, it significantly inhibited CCA cell migration, and reduced MMP 2 and MMP 9 levels at doses of 25 - 100 µM.
Conclusion: Alendronate may be useful as a novel drug for prevention and chemotherapy of CCA.
Submission of a manuscript to this journal is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
All authors named in each manuscript would be required to sign a form (to be supplied by the Editor) so that they may retain their copyright in the article but to assign to us (the Publishers) and its licensees in perpetuity, in all forms, formats and media (whether known or created in the future) to (i) publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the contribution, (ii) translate the contribution into other languages, create adaptations, reprints, include within collections and create summaries, extracts and/or abstracts of the contribution, (iii) create any other derivative works(s) based on the contribution, (iv) to exploit all subsidiary rights in the contribution, (v) the inclusion of electronic links from the contribution to third party material where-ever it may be located, and (vi) license any thrid party to do any or all of the above.