Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer effects of Piper betle L (Piperaceae) leaf extract on MCF-7 cells, and preparation of transdermal patches of the extract
Purpose: To determine the antioxidant and anticancer effects of Piper betle (P. betle) leaf extract on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and to develop transdermal patches containing the extract.
Methods: The leaf extract of P. betle was prepared by maceration method, and its antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity and suppression of cell migration (indices of anticancer activity) were also assessed in MCF-7 cells by sulforhodamine B (SRB) and wound healing assays, respectively. Transdermal patches were developed using the casting method, and the resultant patches were evaluated with regard to their physical appearance and mechanical properties before and after a stability test.
Results: The extract exhibited antioxidant activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 30.0 ± 0.1 µg/mL. It also showed cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 114.3 ± 14.9 µg/mL, and significantly suppressed the migration of MCF-7 cells at a dose of 25 µg/mL. Based on desirable characteristics, patch base formulations containing 4.2 % pectin, 0.4 % hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC), 0.4 % polyvinyl pyrrolidine K-90 (PVP-K90) and 3 % propylene glycol (PG) were selected for incorporation into the extract.
Conclusion: Leaf extract of P. betle exhibits potential anti-breast cancer properties. A transdermal patch containing 0.03 % of the extract can be successfully developed for treatment of breast cancer.
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