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Psiadia punctulata (DC.) Vatke induces cell apoptosis in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells

Nael Abutaha
Ahmed Almalki
Fahd AL- Mekhlafi
Lamya Ahmed Al-Keridis
Rania Ali El Hadi Mohamed
Muhammad A Wadaan


Purpose: This study assessed the in vitro cell migration inhibitory and cell apoptotic effects of P. punctulata stem (PPS (and leaf hexane) PPL (extracts on breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 andMCF-7 cells).
Methods: Cytotoxicity was quantified using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) release test after 48 h exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to 0 – 200 μg/mL of PPS and PPL hexane extract. Cell apoptosis was determined using Muse™ cell cytometry, while the phytoconstituents of PPS and PPL hexane extracts were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
Results: The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for PPS and PPL hexane extracts against MDA-MB-231 cells was 44.33 and 52.16 μg/mL, respectively. T, whereas the IC50 of PPS and PPL hexane extracts was 102.22 and 59.53 μg/mL against MCF-7 cells, sequentially. Treatment with 100 and 200 μg/mL of PPS and PPL hexane extract increased late apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells to 16.005 ± 1.155 and 52.58 ± 3.02 %, respectively, for PPS hexane extract and 77.34 ± 0 % and 95.21 ± 1.61 %, respectively, for PPL hexane extract, when compared to control cells (3.81% ± 0.79%). PPL hexane extract decreased cell migration and filled ~15.5 % of the wound gap on MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h, while PPS hexane extract decreased cell migration by ~35 and ~42.5 % at 24 and 48 h, respectively. PPS and PPL hexane extracts contained several phytocompounds. Stem and leaf extracts of P. punctulata showed significant (p < 0.05) cell apoptotic and migration inhibition activities.
Conclusion: The extracts P. punctulata exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against the tested breast cancer cells. Further research is required to assess the acute and subacute toxicity of the extracts.