Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of Secamone afzelii (Schult) K Schum (Asclepiadaceae)
Purpose: Establishment of the pharmacognostic profile of the leaves of Secamone afzelii (Schult) K. Schum, known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification.
Methods: Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves were carried out to determine the macromorphological, micromorphological, chemomicroscopic, numerical (palisade ratio, stomata number, stomata index, vein–islet number and veinlet termination number, moisture content, total ash, acid–insoluble ash, water–soluble ash, alcohol and water soluble extractive values) and phytochemical profiles.
Results: Macro-and microscopical studies indicated the presence of pinnately compound leaf, an entire margin with lanceolate shape, acute base, accumulate apex and reticulate venation. Epidermal walls were straight with numerous calcium oxalate crystals. Stomata arrangement was paracytic, with numerous unicellular uniseriate covering trichomes on both surfaces. Chemomicroscopic characters present included lignin, cellulose, mucilage, suberin and cutin, while phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and saponins. The findings also included numerical and quantitative leaf microscopy.
Conclusion: These findings could serve as a basis for proper identification, collection and investigation of Secamone afzelii.
Keywords: Secamone afzelii, Pharmacognostic evaluation, Sample identification.
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