Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxicity of Crude Extracts of Vatica diospyroides Symington Type LS
Purpose: To investigate the phytochemistry and cytotoxic activity of the leaf, branch and fruit extracts of Vatica diospyroides Symington type LS, an endangered medicinal plant in the peninsula of Thailand.
Methods: Extracts of the mature leaves, branches and fruit (both cotyledon and pericarp) of five-year old tree were obtained using various organic solvents. Thin–layer chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical screening were employed to identify the chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity was
characterized by 50 % inhibition (IC50) of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthaizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Results: The extracts of the plant parts differed in chemical composition. Terpenoids and anthraquinones were present in all extracts, while cardiac glycosides and tannins were isolated from the branches and leaves, respectively. The acetone and methanol extracts of the fruit cotyledons were highly cytotoxic against MDA-MB-468 cell line (IC50 = 3.1 ìg/ml for both extracts), whereas acetone and dichloromethane extracts of the fruit pericarps were highly active against MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 18.2 and 21.0 ìg/ml, respectively). The other extracts were less active.
Conclusion: This work revealed the potentials of V. diospyroides fruit as a cytotoxic agent against human breast cancer cell lines. However, further studies, including identification and purification of the active compounds, will need to be pursued.
Keywords: Breast cancer, Crude extract, Dipterocarpaceae, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, Vatica diospyroides