Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether Fruit Extract of Fruits of Brucea javanica (Simarubaceae)
Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and antitumor activity of the petroleum ether extract of the dried ripe fruits of Brucea javanica.
Methods: The composition of petroleum ether extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and their antitumor activities were determined by MTT assay.
Results: GC/MS spectrometry results indicate that the petroleum ether extract was a mixture of esters, fatty acids, sterides, pregnanones, terpenes, alkaloids, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and other compounds. The results also revealed the significant antitumor activity of the extract with IC50 of 9.14, 12.45, 15.15, 16.13, 22.26, and 27.97 μg/mL against A549, CNE, MCF-7, NCI-H460, HepG2, and KB-3-1 cell lines, respectively.
Conclusion: The study establishes the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of the petroleum ether extract of the plant fruits. There is need for further investigations to isolate more potent compounds and structurally modify the known compounds to retain activity and lower toxicity and thus lead to the possible development of Brucea javanica oil.
Keywords: Brucae javanica, Mass spectra, Cytotoxic activity, Anti-tumour.