Antibiotics use and resistance patterns of Salmonella species in poultry from Ibadan, Nigeria
Antibiotic use in food-producing animals and associated public health risks are of global concern. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the pattern antimicrobials use in poultry farms in Ibadan, between February and July, 2009. Thirty poultry farmers were interviewed with structured questionnaires on the patterns of antibiotic usage, knowledge of withdrawal period and antibiotics resistance. Also, 90 cloacal swabs were collected for isolation, characterization and Salmonella spp susceptibility to antibiotics from the farms. Ninety percent of the respondents frequently administered different antibiotics obtained from veterinary retail shops or drugs vendors and salespersons to their chickens. Eighty five percent (85%) of the respondents engaged in self medication without veterinary diagnosis of diseases or prescription. Eighty six percent of the respondents routinely administered most of these antibiotics as feed additives to prevent disease or as growth promoters or egg boosters. Treatment records and dosages were not properly documented in most of the surveyed farms. Only 20% of the respondents had the understanding of withdrawal periods while 80% of the respondents did not practice withdrawal for the fear of economic losses and were not aware of the effects of such practices on the consumers of poultry products. Salmonella species were isolated from 43.3% of the cloacal swabs, the isolates exhibited different patterns of multi-drug resistance. The results indicated unregulated and indiscriminate use of antibiotics by poultry farmers could account for the widespread antibiotics resistance among the Salmonella strains and food safety risks. There are urgent needs for national monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in Nigeria and veterinary public health extension education among poultry farmers on good agricultural practice, responsible usage of veterinary drugs and on the health risks of antibiotics resistance in food-borne pathogens. Strict regulation of food-animal production in Nigeria is also recommended to assure food safety.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Resistance, Salmonellosis, Poultry