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A study on the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors of brucellosis in livestock and wild animals was carried in Mikumi-Selous ecosystem from September 2010 to August 2011. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA) techniques were applied for the disease diagnosis. A total of 747 cattle, 198 goats, 168 sheep and 88 wild animals were tested for Brucella infection. Serological survey showed that 14.1%, 0.5% and 0.6% of cattle, goats and sheep were seropositive, respectively. The study showed that domestic animals in Kilosa, Kilombero, Mvomero and Ulanga districts were equally infected by Brucella. A proportion of 7.7% and 13.6% of buffalo tested positive by RBPT and cELISA, respectively. Animal-to-animal contact was the risk factor associated with the spread of the disease in the interface areas (P=0.02, OR=2.34). This study showed that brucellosis has spread amongst animals due to shared grazing land and habitat. However, could not identify the source of infection between the two animal populations. The study calls for more studies on molecular epidemiology of the disease in order to establish the dynamics of Brucella spp. in the study areas and other livestock/wildlife/humans interface areas. Such knowledge is vital for effective intervention of brucellosis.
Keywords: Neglected zoonoses, pastoral cattle. seroprevalence