Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia
AbstractBackground: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is very common in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Children with this disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections especially of the urinary tract, bones and lungs. The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has however not been reported in this part of the Nigeria.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacteriuria and bacterial isolates in the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anaemia.
Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on 250 children with SCA and 250 controls with HbAA aged 6 months to 15 years. Following clinical assessment, midstream urine or urine obtained by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected and subjected to microscopy and culture.
Results: Bacteriuria was found in 65 (26%) of children with SCA and controls 514 (20.4%) of controls, p>0.05. Escherichia coli [16 (27.7%)] and Klebsiella species [16(24.6%)] were the predominant isolates in SCA group, while Escherichia coli [13(37.3%)] and Coliforms (25.4%) were predominant in the control group. Significant bacteruria occurred in patients with other clinical conditions such as pneumonia and septicaemia.
Conclusion: Urinary tract infection is common in children with SCA. Routine screening is therefore recommended during febrile illnesses.