Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa
Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information system (GIS). The sites were identified by identifying potential sources of ECPs, including hospitals and clinics, sewage treatment plants, and areas with high population densities or areas that were vulnerable from an environmental point of view. Buffers were drawn around these areas to identify the water sources which have the highest probability of containing ECPs. Areas along the Klip River were identified as having a high likelihood of containing both anthropogenic ECPs and agricultural ECPs. Additionally, sections of the Hennops River were likely to contain anthropogenic ECPs, while the Blesbokspruit area had a high likelihood of containing agricultural ECPs.