PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH

Water SA

The AJOL site is currently undergoing a major upgrade, and there will temporarily be some restrictions to the available functionality.
-- Users will not be able to register or log in during this period.
-- Full text (PDF) downloads of Open Access journal articles will be available as always.
-- Full text (PDF) downloads of subscription based journal articles will NOT be available
We apologise for any inconvenience caused. Please check back soon, as we will revert to usual policy as soon as possible.





Distribution, exposure pathways, sources and toxicity of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in the environment

T.B. Chokwe, J.O. Okonkwo, L.L. Sibali

Abstract


Alkylphenols (APs) are ultimate breakdown products of alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEs) that are used in cleaning and industrial processes. The most commonly used APEs in the market are the nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEs). As a result of their widespread use and their lipophilic nature, these compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and are currently of concern  because of their toxicity, oestrogenic properties and widespread contamination. This  review summarizes the concentrations of NPE and NP in different environmental media. The sources of NPE in the environment and toxicity are reviewed. Their distribution patterns in the environment as well as exposure pathways are discussed with a view to provide better understanding of these emerging environmental contaminants. It is envisaged that this review will heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues and data gaps, and generate a future research agenda on APEs.


Keywords: nonylphenols, nonylphenol ethoxylates, concentrations, exposure pathway, sources, toxicity




http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v43i4.01
AJOL African Journals Online