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Integration of complete elemental mass-balanced stoichiometry and aqueous-phase chemistry for bioprocess modelling of liquid and solid waste treatment systems − Part 2: Bioprocess stoichiometry

C.J. Brouckaert
G.A. Ekama
B.M. Brouckaert
D.S. Ikumi


Bioprocesses interact with the aqueous environment in which they take place. Integrated bioprocess and threephase (aqueous−gas−solid) multiple strong and weak acid/base system models are currently being developed for a range of wastewater treatment applications  including anaerobic digestion, biological sulphate reduction, autotrophic denitrification, biological desulphurization and plant-wide water and resource recovery facilities. In order to model, measure and control such integrated systems, a thorough understanding of the  interactions between the bioprocesses and aqueous phase multiple strong and weak acid/bases are required. In the first of this series of five papers, the generalized procedure for deriving bioprocess stoichiometric equations was explained. This second paper presents the stoichiometric equations for the major biological processes and shows how their structure can be analysed to provide insight into how bioprocesses interact with the aqueous environment. Such insight is essential for confident, effective and reliable use of model  development protocols and algorithms. It shows that the composite parameters, total oxygen demand (TOD, electron donating capacity) and alkalinity (proton accepting capacity), are conserved in bioprocess stoichiometry and their changes in the aqueous phase can be calculated from the bioprocess components. In the third paper, the measurement of the organics composition is presented. The link between the modelling and measurement frameworks of the aqueous phase, which uses the composite parameter alkalinity, is described in the fourth paper. Aqueous ionic speciation modelling is described in detail in the fifth.

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eISSN: 1816-7950
print ISSN: 0378-4738