Arthrospira (Spirulina) in tannery wastewaters Part 1: The microbial ecology of tannery waste stabilisation ponds and the management of noxious odour emissions using microalgal capping
We investigated the problem of noxious gas and odour emissions in zero-discharge evaporative tannery waste stabilisation ponds. These have been little-studied systems although they present one of few options for the management of tannery wastewaters in highly water-stressed areas. A three-year study of the microbial ecology of an evaporative waste stabilisation ponding cascade was undertaken and a descriptive account of the biology and the physico-chemical parameters related to odiferous gas release is reported. Large populations of Arthrospira (Spirulina) dominated the latter facultative ponds in the cascade where odour emission was substantially reduced compared to initial anaerobic ponds. Photosynthetic productivity maxima of up to 9 000 mg∙m-2∙day-1 carbon fixation were measured in bloom conditions. Arthrospira production was associated with an oxygenated, alkaline layer established on the surface of facultative ponds (0.35 m in depth) in which oxidation of sulphide and ammonia, and the trapping of other odour-causing compounds was observed. An attempt was made to achieve comparable odour control in the anaerobic ponds by capping with recirculated microalgae-enriched effluent from facultative ponds. While this was shown to be effective in establishing an Arthrospira-dominant surface layer and an associated control of odour emissions in anaerobic ponds, large recirculation volumes (2:1) were required to maintain the Arthrospira population. Elevated salinity of recirculated facultative pond waters also negatively impacted the evaporative function in the low-salinity initial ponds in the cascade. An alternative method of Arthrospira capping was investigated which involved the construction of a free-standing high rate pond alongside the waste stabilisation pond system, and using a controlled feed of raw tannery effluent for optimising the cultivation of Arthrospira biomass. High biomass productivity was achieved in this unit (12.87 g∙m-2∙day-1), using a low feed to effluent loading volume ratio (0.21:1) and subsequent capping of anaerobic ponds from this source achieved odour control comparable to facultative ponds. This study has shown that management of the odour problem in waste stabilisation ponds is possible and that leather production using the zero-discharge evaporative disposal operation may be compatible with a level of both environmental and social acceptability of these systems. Odour problems, alone, should thus not constrain tanning as one of the few industrial agricultural activities available in rural economies.
Keywords: tannery, wastewater, waste stabilisation ponds, odour, noxious gas, Spirulina, Arthrospira, microalgal biomass