Imperforate anus in a male Friesian-Holstein calf: Case report and review of literature

  • Borden Mushonga
  • Samuel Nsengimana
  • Alaster Samkange
  • Erick Kandiwa
  • Gervais Habarugira


A case of imperforate anus in a 3-day old male Friesian-Holstein calf was presented and treated in Bugesera district, Rwanda. The condition has rarely been reported in Africa. A brief review of the etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, surgical and post-surgical management and classification of anorectal malformations (ARM) as they occur in man and domestic animals with emphasis on imperforate anus is hereby presented. We focus on the usage of the terms imperforate anus, atresia ani and make a distinction between these terms and other ARMs. With emphasis placed on the nomenclature of ARMs and the distinction between usage of the terms imperforate anus and atresia ani, we propose that the two terms be viewed as different and standard scientific nomenclature of Type I –IV ARM be used consistently to avoid confusion. If the terms atresia ani and imperforate anus should be used, they must be used correctly and consistently.

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eISSN: 1016-1511