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Annals of African Surgery

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Indications and immediate outcomes of tracheostomy in Rwanda

Niyonzima Charles, Kaitesi Batamuliza Mukara

Abstract


Introduction: Tracheostomy is performed as an alternative to the natural breathing airways for upper airway obstruction, pulmonary toilet or for protecting the larynx. It is a common procedure in surgical departments.

Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating the immediate outcomes of tracheostomy and the incidence of immediate complications associated with tracheostomy.

Methods: Using a questionnaire, prospective data was collected from patients, who presented in Ear, Nose and Throat department at the Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH).

Results: 29 patients underwent a tracheostomy. The age rang was 4 to 77 years, mean of 37 years, 82.8% were aged above 18 years. Male to female ratio was 3.8:1. The incidence of tracheostomy was 9.5%. The most common indication was prolonged intubation accounting for 55.2% of cases. No intra -operative complications were noted. No tracheostomy related mortality occurred within 24 hours after the procedure. 86.2% patients were clinically stable after the procedure while 13.8% were unstable due to their primary medical conditions.

Conclusion: Prolonged intubation is the most common indication for tracheostomy, most of the times performed as an elective procedure. The procedure is safe for all patients even in resource poor settings and post-operative complications are minimal.

Keywords: Tracheostomy, Indications, Immediate outcome, Complications, Rwanda




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