Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome amongst persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary hospital in southern Nigeria
Background: Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major economic consequences for the patients, their families, and thesociety. Diabetic foot ulcers are largely preventable by identifying people at risk of ulceration throughexamination of the feet, education and frequent follow-up of these patients.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Diabetes mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS) amongst persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital.
Subjects, materials and methods: A total of 380 persons with T2DM were recruited for this study. Questionnaires were administered to the subjects to obtain socio-demographic and clinical information. Anthropometric measurements were taken, physical and neurological examination of both feet as well palpation of peripheral vessels and Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) determination were also carried out.
Results: Out of the 230 study subjects, 61% were females while 39% were males.The mean age of the subjects with DMFS and controls were 56.31 and 50.83 years respectively (p=0.01). The mean duration of DM for study subjects and controls were 6.50 and 3.91years (p=0.01). The prevalence of DMFS in this study was 38.7%. Peripheral neuropathy was the most prevalent risk factor present in 57.8% of subjects with DMFS, followeAnkle–brachial pressure index d by calluses (42.6%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of DMFS amongst persons with Type 2 DM appears to be high which (are)is in keeping with global trends of DM. Routine foot examination aimed at early identification of and modification of risk factors of DMFS is thus recommended.